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Developmental or acquired deformities and conditions

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    Four groups of developmental or acquired deformities and conditions are distinguished
    1. Localized tooth-related factors that modify or predispose to plaque-induced gingival diseases/periodontitis
      1. Tooth anatomy
      2. Restorations or appliances (e.g., dental brace)
      3. Root fractures
      4. Cervical root resorptions or cementum damage
    2. Mucogingival deformities and conditions in the immediate vicinity of the tooth
      1. Gingival or soft tissue recessions
        1. Facial or lingual surfaces
        2. Interapproximal (papillary)
      2. Deficiency of keratinized gingiva
      3. Reduced vestibular height
      4. Abnormal position of the frenulum or of muscles
      5. Gingival expansion
        1. Pseudo pockets
        2. Inconsistent gingival margin
        3. Excessively prominent-looking gingiva
        4. Gingival enlargement
        5. Abnormal color
    3. Mucogingival deformities and conditions in the edentulous alveolar ridge
      1. Vertical or horizontal ridge defects
      2. Absence of gingiva or keratinized tissue
      3. Hypertrophy of the gingiva or soft tissue
      4. Abnormal position of the frenulum or of muscles
      5. Reduced vestibular height
      6. Abnormal color
    4. Occlusal trauma
      1. Primary occlusal trauma
      2. Secondary occlusal trauma
    (Carranza et al. 2006; Blieden 1999)
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    sources

    • Blieden, T. M. (1999): Tooth-related issues. In: Ann. Periodontol. 4 (1), S. 91–97. DOI: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.91
    • Carranza, Fermin A.; Newman, Michael G.; Takei, Henry H.; Klokkevold, Perry R. (2006): Carranza's clinical periodontology. 10th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier